## MONTE CARLO METHOD

**Following from: **
Radiative transfer for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems: Matrix operator method

**Leading to: **
Radiative transfer for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems: Hybrid method

The Monte Carlo method is a general algorithm that can be applied to any physical problem that can be broken down into a sequence of events, each of which having a certain probability of occurrence. Before it was applied to radiative transfer (RT) problems, the Monte Carlo method had found applications in a diversity of physical and mathematical problems (Hammersley and Handscomb, 1964). It was first applied to calculations of light scattering in the atmosphere by Collins and Wells (1965) and Plass and Kattawar (1968). Following that, it was applied to light scattering in a coupled atmosphere-ocean system by Plass and Kattawar (1969, 1972).

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#### References

- Adams, C. N. and Kattawar, G. W., Radiative Transfer in Spherical Shell Atmospheres, I. Rayleigh Scattering,
*Icarus*, vol.**35**, pp. 139-151, 1978. - Adams, J. T. and Kattawar, G. W., Polarimetric Lidar Returns in the Ocean: A Monte Carlo Simulation,
*Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng*., vol.**2963**, pp. 54-59, 1996. - Collins, D. G. and Wells, M. B., Monte Carlo Codes for the Study of Light Transport in the Atmosphere, Radiation Research Associates, Inc., Fort Worth, 1965.
- Hammersley, J. M. and Handscomb, D. C.,
*Monte Carlo Methods*, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 1964. - Kattawar, G. W. and Adams, C. N., Radiative Transfer in Spherical Shell Atmospheres. II. Asymmetric Phase Functions,
*Icarus*, vol.**35**, pp. 436-449, 1978. - Kattawar, G. W., Radiative Transfer in Spherical Shell Atmospheres, III. Application to Venus,
*Icarus*, vol.**40**, pp. 60-66, 1979. - Plass, G. N. and Kattawar, G. W., Monte Carlo Calculations of Light Scattering from Clouds,
*Appl. Opt*., vol.**7**, pp. 415-419, 1968. - Plass, G. N. and Kattawar, G. W., Radiative Transfer in an Atmosphere-Ocean System,
*Appl. Opt*., vol.**8**, pp. 455-466, 1969. - Plass, G. N. and Kattawar, G. W., Monte Carlo Calculations of Radiative Transfer in the Earth’s Atmosphere-Ocean System: I. Flux in the Atmosphere and Ocean,
*J. Phys. Oceanog.*, vol.**2**, pp. 139-145, 1972.