Where there is a flow over a concave surface, centrifugal instabilities can develop causing the formation of an array of Vortices. These vortices are aligned with their axes parallel to the main direction of flow with adjacent vortices rotating in opposite senses.
These are laminar flows and are sometimes known as Görtler-Taylor (or Taylor-Görtler) vortex flows, but are often subdivided into Taylor flows and Görtler flows.
Taylor flows occur between two rotating concentric cylinders. At low rotation rates, there is Couette Flow, but for higher rotation rates (of one or both cylinders), Taylor vortices develop. Figure 1 illustrates the arrangement of these vortices in an annulus. The point at which these vortices develop is dependent on the rotation rates of both the inner and outer cylinders and the width of the gap. The conditions over which such vortices are found are discussed in both Schlichting (1968), Tritton (1977) and Rosenhead (1963).
Görtler vortex flows are found where there is a flow over a concave surface. For sufficiently high flow speeds, centrifugal instabilities develop leading to the production of vortices in the boundary layer. This type flow are discussed in both Schlichting (1968), Rosenhead (1963) and Saric (1994) and is illustrated in Figure 1.
Rosenhead, L. (1963) Laminar Boundary Layers, Oxford University Press, London.
Saric, W. S. (1994) Görtler vortices, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 26, 379-409.
Schlichting, H. (1968) Boundary-Layer Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Tritton, D. J. (1977) Physical Fluid Dynamics, Van Nostrand Reinhold, Wokingham, UK.