A B C D E
EA EBULLIOSCOPIC CONSTANT ECCENTRICALLY ROTATING POROUS DISK ECKERT ENTHALPY ECKERT NUMBER ECKERT, ERG ECONOMIC PENALTIES OF FOULING EDDIES EDDIES IN TURBULENT FLOW EDDY CORRELATION METHOD OF SURFACE HEAT TRANSFER EDDY VISCOSITY EDF EDGE INSTABILITY EFFECTIVE DIFFUSIVITY METHOD EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDERS EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF UNSATURATED POROUS MEDIA EFFECTIVENESS - NTU METHOD EFFECTIVENESS OF HEAT EXCHANGER EFFECTIVENESS OF POROSITY ON STAGNATION POINT FLOW EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS ON NONLINEAR MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW EFFERVESCENT ATOMIZATION EFFERVESCENT ATOMIZER EFFERVESCENT SPRAYS EFFICIENCY AND STEAM TURBINES EFFICIENCY OF CYCLES EFFICIENCY OF HEAT EXCHANGERS EFFICIENCY OF POWER CYCLES EFFICIENCY OF PROCESSES EFFICIENCY, IN TURBINES EFFICIENT WAVY FIN SURFACE EFFLUENT TREATMENT EFFLUX EIGENFUNCTIONS EIGENVALUES EINSTEIN EQUATION FOR MIXTURE VELOCITY EKMAN-LAYERS ELASTIC WAVES AT POROUS/POROUS ELASTIC HALF-SPACES ELASTICOVISCOUS FLUIDS ELBOW FLOW METERS ELECTRET ELECTRIC (JOULE) HEATERS ELECTRIC ARC ELECTRIC ARC HEATER ELECTRIC CONTACT METHOD, FOR FILM THICKNESS MEASUREMENT ELECTRIC FURNACES ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, EPRI ELECTRICAL COALESCERS ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF BUBBLY MIXTURES ELECTRICAL CONTACT METHOD ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION FROM GEOTHERMAL ENERGY ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE STRAIN GAUGES ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF PARTICLES ELECTRICAL SEPARATION ELECTRICALLY CHARGED PARTICLES ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING VISCOELASTIC FLUID ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN SHOCK TUBES Electricite de France, EDF ELECTRICITY ASSOCIATION, EA ELECTROCATALYSTS ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS ELECTROCHEMICAL THEORY OF CORROSION ELECTROCHEMISTRY ELECTRODE ELECTRODEPOSITION ELECTRODIALYSIS ELECTRODIFFUSION METHOD ELECTRODYNAMIC MODEL IN PLASMA PHYSICS ELECTROFLOTATION, EF ELECTROHYDRODYNAMIC AUGMENTATION ELECTROLYSIS ELECTROLYTE ELECTROLYTE FLOW MEASUREMENT ELECTROLYTE SOLUTION, DIFFUSION IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS, ADSORPTION FROM ELECTROLYTIC CELL ELECTROLYTIC REACTIONS ELECTROMAGNETIC FLOWMETERS ELECTROMAGNETIC HYBRID MODELS ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING ELECTROMAGNETISM ELECTRON ENERGY LEVELS ELECTRON GAS ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY ELECTRON VOLT ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS ELECTRONIC THEORIES, FOR CATALYSIS ELECTRONS ELECTROOSMOSIS ELECTROPHORETIC FORCES ELECTROPLATING ELECTROSPRAYS ELECTROSTATIC ATOMIZERS ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE ELECTROSTATIC EFFECTS ELECTROSTATIC EXTRACTION ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION Elementary processes Elementary processes in weakly ionized gases ELLIPSOIDS ELLIPTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS ELUTION ELUTION CHROMATOGRAPHY ELUTRIATION EMERGENCY CORE COOLING SYSTEM, ECCS EMISSIONS EMISSIVE POWER Emissivity EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENTS OF POWDERS EMISSIVITY OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS EMISSIVITY OF TWO-PHASE COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN A SOLID-PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINE EMULSIFYING AGENT Emulsions ENDOTHELIAL SURFACE ENDOTHERMIC REACTIONS ENEA ENEL ENERGY ACCOMMODATION COEFFICIENT ENERGY BANDS ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY ENERGY EFFICIENCY BEST PRACTICE PROGRAMME ENERGY FRACTURE CRITERION ENERGY SPECTRUM OF TURBULENCE ENERGY STORAGE ENERGY SUPPLY ENERGY TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT UNIT, ETSU ENERGY, RENEWABLE ENGINEERING SCIENCES DATA UNIT, ESDU ENHANCED AIR COOLERS ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY ENHANCEMENT OF FILM CONDENSATION HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT OF MASS TRANSFER ENIAC Enlargement, Flow and Pressure Change in ENSEMBLE AVERAGES ENTE NAZIONALE PER I'ENERGIA ELETTRICA, ENEL ENTHALPY ENTHALPY METHOD ENTHALPY OF VAPORIZATION ENTHALPY, EFFECTIVE FOR SURFACE DESTRUCTION ENTRAINMENT OF DROPLETS ENTRAINMENT OF DROPS, IN ANNULAR FLOW ENTRANCE LENGTH EFFECTS ENTRANCE REGION HEAT TRANSFER, IN TUBES Entrance region. Entry region ENTRAPMENT PUMPS ENTROPY ENTROPY GENERATION ENTROPY OF VAPORIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS ENVIRONMENTAL HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ENZYMATIC REACTION KINETICS EPRI EQUATION OF MOTION EQUATION OF STATE EQUILIBRIUM EQUILIBRIUM STATE EQUILIBRIUM STATES, THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM TEMPERATURE EQUILIBRIUM VAPOR PRESSURE, CHANGE WITH TEMPERATURE ERGODIC PROCESSES ERGODICITY EROSION ERROR FUNCTION ESA ESDU Estimate of P1 error for optically inhomogeneous media ETHANE ETHANOL ETHANOLAMINES ETHENE, SEPARATION OF ETHYLENE ETHYLENE GLYCOL ETSU EUCLIDEAN SPACE EULER CORRELATION EULER EFFICIENCY EULER EQUATION EULER FORMULA EULER NUMBER EULERIAN APPROACH EULERIAN BALANCES EULERIAN DESCRIPTION EULERIAN DESCRIPTION OF MOTION EULERIAN INTEGRAL SCALES EULERIAN SPECIFICATION EURATOM EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, EURATOM EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY, ESA EVAPORATING SPRAY EVAPORATION EVAPORATION COEFFICIENT EVAPORATION ENHANCEMENT EVAPORATION FROM EARTH'S SURFACE EVAPORATION OF DROPLETS EVAPORATION OF DROPS EVAPORATIVE COOLING EVAPORATORS EVENT TREES Examples of CO2 and H2O EXERGY EXHAUST EMISSION LEVELS EXOSPHERE EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS EXPANSION BELLOWS EXPANSION JOINTS EXPANSION, FLOW THROUGH AND PRESSURE DROP EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANODE MATERIAL - HEAT FLUX AND TEMPERATURE FIELD Experimental investigations of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) Experimental Methods in Fluid Mechanics Experimental study and theoretical modeling of spectral radiative properties of dispersed materials Experimental techniques EXPLOSION PHENOMENA EXPONENTIAL DECAYING PRESSURE GRADIENT EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION EXPONENTIAL SUMS EXTENDED SURFACE HEAT TRANSFER EXTENDED SURFACES EXTENSIONAL FLOW EXTENSIONAL VISCOSITY External Flows: Overview EXTERNAL JACKET EXTINCTION, PHOTO EXTRA STRESS EXTRACT PHASE EXTRACTION, LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTORS EXTRUDATE SWELL EXTRUSION PLASTICS LAGRANGE'S INTERPOLATION FORMULA
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ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

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Electromagnetic Waves occur with frequencies ranging from 104 to 1024 Hz and have wavelengths from 10–16 to 104 meters. The common feature of all types of electromagnetic waves is that their speed in a vacuum is 3.00 × 108 m/s.

Radio waves make up the long wavelength, low-frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum. The longest wavelengths (up to 10 km) are used for underwater communication (e.g., submarines). Long-wave radio stations use 1–2 km wavelengths (150–300 kHz) while medium-wave broadcasts use frequencies of up to 1.5 MHz (200 m wavelength). Short-wave radio frequencies continue up to 11–12 MHz (wavelengths down to a few meters). FM radio and TV transmissions use frequencies in the range of 60–900 MHz (wavelengths down to 300 cm).

Radar and Microwaves use the frequency range 1–20 GHz (wavelengths down to 1 cm).

Infrared radiation covers the wavelength region between 1 μ and 1 mm (frequencies between 1011 and ~3×1014 Hz).

Visible light occupies a small, but important, part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Frequencies between 4 and 8 × 1014 Hz and wavelengths decreasing from 7 to 4 × 10–7m, correspond to light with colors ranging from red, orange, yellow, green, blue and indigo light. Visible light, together with infrared and ultraviolet radiation, is emitted following electron transitions in atoms or molecules. Such transitions may be stimulated by heat or by the application of an electric current.

Ultraviolet rays have higher frequencies, from a few × 1016 Hz, and shorter wavelengths, down to 10–8 m, than visible light.

X-rays are emitted following electron transitions between the K, L, M and N atomic electron shells. X-ray wavelengths cover the range 10–8 to 10–11 m, with frequencies from 1016 to 1019 Hz. K X-rays are those produced by electron transitions to the K-shell; L X-rays are those produced by electron transitions to the L-shell and so on. Since these electron transitions involve the release of well-defined and precise quantities of energy, it is common to characterize X-rays by their energies and the normal units used are electron-volts. X-ray energies cover the range from a few eV to 100 keV.

Gamma rays are emitted by nuclear transitions and are usually emitted at higher energies than X-rays, with a range of a few keV to several MeV. Gamma rays have the shortest wavelength, down to 10–16 m, and the highest frequency, up to 1024 Hz, in the electromagnetic spectrum.

Characterizing X-rays and gamma rays by energy implies that these types of radiation can be thought of as small energy packets. These energy packets are called quanta or photons, and in some ways are particle-like. This dual nature of electromagnetic radiation extends right through the electromagnetic spectrum. Some features of electromagnetic radiation, such as interference or diffraction, are best explained with reference to electromagnetic waves whereas others, such as some X and gamma ray interactions are easier to envisage as particle-like interactions. Planck has shown that individual photons or quanta of electromagnetic radiation carry an energy proportional to frequency. The constant of proportionality is known as Planck’s Constant and has the value 6.63 × 10–34 J.s.

Following from:

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Leading to:

GAMMA RAYS
Radiative heat transfer

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