A B C
ACHE CAD, PLASTICATING SCREWS CAF, COMPRESSED ASBESTOS FIBRE JOINTING CALANDRIA CALCIUM CALCULATING TIME CHARACTERISTICS OF IGNITION OF HYBRID GAS SUSPENSIONS CALDER HALL CALORIE CALORIFIC VALUE OF FUEL CALORIMETRY CANDU NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS CANONICAL PARTITION FUNCTION CAP BUBBLES CAPACATIVE HEAT EXCHANGERS CAPILLARITY Capillary action CAPILLARY CONVECTION CARBOLIC ACID CARBON CARBON ARC CARBON DIOXIDE CARBON DIOXIDE POLLUTION CARBON DIOXIDE, AS A POLLUTANT CARBON DISULFIDE COMBUSTION CARBON MONOXIDE CARBON STEELS CARBON SUBNITRIDE COMBUSTION CARBON THERMOMETERS CARBONACEOUS FUELS CARBONTETRACHLORIDE CARNOT CYCLE CARNOT, NLS CARRYUNDER CARTESIAN COORDINATES CASTING OF METALS CATALYSIS CATALYSTS CATALYTIC ACTIVITY CATALYTIC CONVERSION CATALYTIC CONVERTERS CATALYTIC CRACKING OF PALM OIL CATALYTIC RICH GAS PROCESS, CRG CATHODE CAUCHY SURFACE CAUCHY'S CONVEYENCE PRINCIPLE CAUCHY'S THEOREM CAUSTIC SODA CAVITATING FLOWS CAVITATION CAVITIES, FOR NUCLEATION CAVITY, SQUARE CEA CEC CELL GROWTH CELL POTENTIAL CELLULOSIC FIRES CELSIUS TEMPERATURE SCALE CENTIGRADE TEMPERATURE SCALE CENTRIFUGAL FILTERS CENTRIFUGAL FLOWMETERS CENTRIFUGAL FLUIDIZED BED CENTRIFUGAL SCRUBBER CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS CENTRIFUGES CENTRIPETAL BUOYANCY CENTRIPETAL FORCE CERAMIC CRUCIBLE PLASMA FURNACE CERAMICS CERENKOV RADIATION CERMETS CFCS, CHLOROFLUOROCARBON CFD CFD MODELS CHAIN REACTION CHANG-LIN TIEN CHANNEL CONTROL Channel Flow CHANNEL INSTABILITY CHANNEL IRREGULARLY HEATED CHANNELING EFFECT CHAOS CHAR CHARACTERISTIC DRYING CURVE CHARACTERISTIC EQUATIONS, FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS, OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS CHARCOAL CHARGE CARRIERS CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES, CCD CHARLES LAW CHEBYSHEV EQUATION CHEBYSHEV POLYNOMIAL EXPANSION CHEBYSHEV POLYNOMIALS CHELATION CHEMICAL COMPLEXITY CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM CHEMICAL KINETICS CHEMICAL LASERS CHEMICAL POTENTIAL CHEMICAL REACTION CHEMICAL REACTION FOULING CHEMICAL THEORIES, FOR CATALYSIS CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS CHEMISORPTION CHEN CORRELATION CHEVRON SEPARATORS Chezy Formula CHF CORRELATIONS CHF, CRITICAL HEAT FLUX CHILTON-COLBURN ANALOGY CHIMNEY PLUMES CHIMNEYS CHLOR-ALKALI ELECTROLYSIS CHLORINE CHLOROFLUOROCARBON, CFC CHLOROFORM CHOKED FLOW CHROMATIC DISPERSION CHROMATOGRAPHY CHUGGING INSTABILITIES Churn Flow CIRCUIT BREAKER CIRCULATION RATIO CISE CORRELATIONS CLADDING CLAPEYRON EQUATION CLAPEYRON-CLAUSIUS EQUATION CLARIFICATION CLARIFIERS Classification of foam structures CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS CLASSIFIERS CLAUSIUS CLAUSIUS NUMBER CLAUSIUS-CLAPEYRON EQUATION CLAUSIUS-MOSOTTI EQUATION CLEANING TECHNIQUES, HEAT EXCHANGERS Climate study CLIMATIZATION CLIMBING FILM EVAPORATOR Closed cell foam CLOSED CYCLE GAS TURBINE CLOSED CYCLE MHD GENERATORS CLOSED SYSTEM CLOSURE LAWS CLOUD POINT SPECIFICATION CNEN CO-GENERATION SYSTEMS CO-ORDINATE TRANSFORMATION METHODS COAGULATION COAGULATION, OF AEROSOLS COAGULATION, OF DROPS COAL COAL BURNERS COAL CARBONIZATION COAL COMBUSTION COAL GAS COAL GASIFICATION COAL RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT, CRE COAL SLURRY COALESCENCE Coanda Effect COARSE VARIABLES FOR DYNAMICS COARSE-GRAINED APPROXIMATION COATINGS COAXIAL TWISTING FLOW COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE, COP COHERENCE FUNCTION COHERENCE STRICTURES, IN TURBULENT FLOW COHERENCE, OF RADIATION COHERENT SYSTEM OF UNITS COIL IN TANK COILED TUBE BOILERS Coiled Tube, Flow and Pressure Drop in Coiled Tubes, Heat Transfer in COILED WIRE INSERTS COKE COKE OVENS COKE-OVEN GAS COLBURN CORRELATION COLBURN FACTOR COLBURN HEAT TRANSFER FACTOR COLBURN J-FACTOR COLBURN, ALLAN PHILIP (1904-1955) COLBURN-CHILTON ANALOGY COLD ROD EFFECTS COLEBROOK-WHITE EQUATION, FOR FRICTION FACTOR COLEBROOK-WHITE FORMULA COLLECTION EFFICIENCY COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES COLLIGEND COLLOCATION COLLOIDAL DISPERSIONS COLOR SEGREGATION IN METAL-HALIDE LAMPS COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY COLUMNS COMBINATORIAL MODELING COMBINED BRINKMAN-ELECTRIC BOUNDARY LAYER COMBINED CYCLES COMBINED HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER Combined heat transfer by radiation, conduction, and convection COMBINED RADIATION AND COMBUSTION COMBUSTION COMBUSTION CHAMBER COMBUSTION PRODUCTS COMFORT CONDITIONS COMITATO NAZIONALE PER LA RICERCA E PER LO SVILUPPO DELL'ENERGIA NUCLEARE E DELLE ENERGIE ALTERNATIVE, ENEA COMMERCIAL PLASMATRON COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE, CEA COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY, CEC COMMON MODE FAILURE COMMONWEALTH SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ORGANISATION, CSIRO COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS COMPILER COMPLEX COMPOUND CATALYSIS COMPLEXIFICATION COMPLEXING IONS COMPLEXITY COMPOSITE FLOW COMPOSITE MATERIALS COMPOSITE MATERIALS, ABLATION OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS, COMPUTATION OF COMPOSITE POROUS LAYER COMPOSITES, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF COMPOUND AUGMENTATION COMPRESSED ASBESTOS FIBER JOINTING, CAF COMPRESSIBILITY EFFECTS COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR Compressible Flow COMPRESSION PLASMA FLOWS COMPRESSION POINT COMPRESSION ZONE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES COMPRESSORS COMPTON SCATTERING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC MODELS Computational fluid dynamics Computational methods Computational methods for radiative transfer in disperse systems COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN, CAD COMPUTER PROGRAMMES COMPUTERS CONCAVE SURFACE, FLOW OVER CONCENTRATING COLLECTOR CONCENTRATION-DEPENDENT CHLORIDE DIFFUSIVITY Concept of regularization CONCRETE CONCURRENT MULTISCALE PROBLEMS CONDENSATE INUNDATION CONDENSATION COEFFICIENT CONDENSATION CURVE CONDENSATION IN ENCLOSURES CONDENSATION IN TUBE BANKS CONDENSATION IN TUBES CONDENSATION OF A PURE VAPOR CONDENSATION OF MOVING VAPOR INSIDE VERTICAL TUBES CONDENSATION OF MULTICOMPONENT VAPORS CONDENSATION ON OUTSIDE OF TUBES IN CROSSFLOW CONDENSATION RELAXATION OF SUPERSATURATED VAPOR CONDENSATION SHOCKS CONDENSATION, OF DROPS CONDENSATION, OVERVIEW CONDENSERS CONDUCTANCE PROBES, FOR LOCAL VOID FRACTION CONDUCTANCE, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION COMBINED CONDUCTION COMBINED WITH RADIATION CONDUCTION DRYING CONDUCTION EQUATION CONDUCTION IN HEAT EXCHANGER WALLS CONDUCTIVE HEAT FLUX CONDUCTIVITY CONDUCTIVITY RATIO CONDUCTIVITY, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, OF PLASMA CONE CLASSIFIER Configuration factors for radiation transfer between diffuse surfaces CONFINED SPRAY FLAME CONFORMAL MAPPING CONFORMAL POTENTIALS CONICAL SHOCK WAVE CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER CONSERVATION EQUATIONS CONSERVATION EQUATIONS, SINGLE-PHASE Conservation equations, Two-phase Conservation Laws CONSERVATIVE SYSTEMS CONSTANT RATE PERIOD, DRYING CURVE CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS CONSTITUTIVE RELATION, THERMODYNAMICS Contact angle CONTACT CONDUCTANCE CONTACT DISCONTINUITIES CONTACT RESISTANCE CONTAINMENT CONTINUITY EQUATION CONTINUITY SHOCKS CONTINUITY WAVES CONTINUOUS CASTING CONTINUOUS CRYSTALLIZERS CONTINUOUS FILTERS CONTINUOUS WAVE LASERS Continuum Continuum Hypothesis CONTINUUM MECHANICS CONTINUUM MODELS Contraction, Flow and Pressure Loss in CONTRACTORS CONTROL THEORY CONVECTION CONDENSATION CONVECTION DRYING CONVECTION RADIATION CONVECTIVE BOILING CONVECTIVE HEAT FLUX CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT CONVECTIVE MASS TRANSFER CONVERGENCE FACTORS CONVERGENCE OF SERIES CONVERGING BOUNDARIES CONVERSION FACTORS COOL FLAME EVAPORATION COOLANTS, REACTOR COOPER CORRELATION, FOR NUCLEATE BOILING COORDINATE SYSTEM COPPER CORE, NUCLEAR REACTOR CORED BRICK HEAT EXCHANGERS CORIOLIS EFFECT CORIOLIS EFFECT, IN ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION CORIOLIS MASS FLOWMETER CORLISS VALVE CORONA DISCHARGE, ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION CORONARY ARTERIES Correlated k-models CORRELATION CORRELATION ANALYSIS CORRELATION COEFFICIENT CORRELATION, FOR CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER CORRELATIONS FOR NOx EMISSIONS FROM A SWIRL BURNER CONCEPT CORRESPONDING STATES, PRINCIPLE OF CORROSION FOULING CORROSION, PREDICTION METHODS FOR CORRUGATED CONDENSED TUBES CORRUGATIONS, PLAIN, PERFORATED, AND SERATED COUETTE VISCOMETER COULTER COUNTER COUNTER CURRENT FLOW LIMITATION, CCFL COUNTER CURRENT TWO-PHASE FLOW COUNTERIONIC ATTRACTION Coupled (combined) radiation and conduction COUPLED AUTOREGULATED OSCILLATING CELLS COUPLED CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION COUPLED HEAT AND MASS FLUXES Coupled radiation and convection Coupled radiation, convection and conduction COVALENT BONDING COWPER STOVES CRACKING CRAMER'S RULE CRE CREAGER-OFITSEROV PROFILE CREEPING FLOW CRITICAL CHOKING CRITICAL CONCENTRATION CRITICAL DEPOSITION VELOCITY Critical Flow CRITICAL FLOW RATE, IN ORIFICES CRITICAL HEAT FLUX IN BOILING LIQUID METALS CRITICAL HEAT FLUX IN COILS CRITICAL HEAT FLUX, CHF CRITICAL POINT, DRYING CURVE CRITICAL POINT, THERMODYNAMICS CRITICAL PRESSURE CRITICAL PRESSURE RATIO Critical Reynolds number CRITICAL SEDIMENTATION POINT CRITICAL STATE CRITICAL SURFACE TENSION CRITICAL TEMPERATURE CRITICAL TEMPERATURE, FOR SUPERCONDUCTIVITY CRITICAL TRANSITION VELOCITY CRITICAL ZONE CRITICALITY CROCCO TRANSFORMATION CROCCO'S THEOREM CROSS CORRELATION CROSS FLOW HEAT TRANSFER CROSS FLUXES CROSS SECTIONS CROSS SPECTRUM Crossflow CRUDE OIL CRYOGENIC FLUIDS CRYOGENIC PLANT CRYOGENIC PUMP CRYOGENIC USE OF STEEL CRYOSCOPIC CONSTANT CRYOSTATS CRYSTAL GROWTH CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ASYMMETRY CRYSTAL SUBLIMATION AND GROWTH CRYSTALLIZATION CRYSTALLIZATION FOULING CRYSTALLIZERS CRYSTALS CSIRO CUBIC LATTICES CUNNINGHAM COEFFICIENT CURRENT VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS CURRENTS, NEARSHORE CURVED FLOW CURVILINEAR CHANNELS CYANOGEN COMBUSTION CYCLIC HYDROCARBONS CYCLOHEXANOL CYCLONE FURNACES CYCLONE REYNOLDS NUMBER CYCLONE SEPARATOR CYCLONE STOKES NUMBER CYCLONES CYLINDER, INVISCID FLOW AROUND CYLINDERS, FLOW OVER CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES CYLINDRICAL FINS CYLINDRICAL POLAR COORDINATES
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CRYSTALLIZATION

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Crystallization is the process of forming solid material from a liquid solution or melt, where the solid material formed has crystalline (as opposed to amorphous) structure. A crystallization process generally has the following characteristics:

  • The feed material is either in solution or is a liquid above the melting point of the solid phase. If in solution, there may be more than one solvent present.

  • There may be dissolved or solid impurities present. Some impurities may have very similar properties to the solute (especially for side-products from organic reactions). During crystallization, impurities may remain in solution, crystallize separately, or incorporate in some way into the product crystals.

  • The product material is solid, and present as particles in a range of sizes.

  • The product is generally surrounded by mother liquor.

  • The waste stream from the process is liquid, containing both residual dissolved product and impurities.

The general advantages of crystallization as a process are:

  • High purification can be obtained in a single step.

  • Produces a solid phase which may be suitable for direct packaging and sale.

  • Operates at a lower temperature and with lower energy requirements than corresponding distillation separations.

  • Plant can be simple and easy to construct and maintain.

  • May be more economic than alternative separation processes.

The general disadvantages are:

  • Generally only purifies one component.

  • Yield is limited by phase equilibria.

  • Process kinetics are more complex and less well-understood than some alternatives; obtaining detailed kinetic parameters involves complex experimental procedures.

Crystallization is used industrially in a wide variety of processes. Typical applications include bulk chemicals, such as salt, sugar and fertilizers; high value-added products such as specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals; and difficult separations such as ortho- and para-xylene.

Crystallization processes relating to a single crystal and to multiple crystals in vessels are discussed below while typical equipment used for crystallization are dealt with in a separate article on Crystallizers.

Single Crystals

A crystal is a solid regular lattice of atoms, ions or molecules, formed by replicating a unit cell.

These lattices can be categorized by symmetry into a number of crystal systems: regular, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, trigonal, triclinic and hexagonal. Over 80% of elements and simple inorganic materials crystallize in the regular or hexagonal systems; complex organics favor orthorhombic and monoclinic systems. The shape or habit of a crystal is defined by the faces of the crystal, which can align in different ways with the crystal lattice. The overall shape of a crystal is defined by the rate at which the various faces grow; the fastest growing faces disappear, leaving the slowest growing faces to dominate. Lattices can also have a range of defects. These can form sites for rapid crystal growth and, in some cases, are the dominant means for crystal growth.

Figure 1. 

Figure 2. 

Figure 3. 

Processes Affecting Crystals

The driving force for both the formation of new crystals and the growth of existing ones is supersaturation. This arises from the concentration of solute exceeding the equilibrium (saturation) solubility concentration.

Thermodynamically, the driving force is the change in Gibbs’ free energy, Δμ = μ - μ* = RTlnγ/γ* , where γ is the activity coefficient. However, this driving force is difficult to determine so the concentration difference, Δc = c - c*, is most commonly used in practical correlations. Uncrystallized solute molecules start by being dispersed randomly in a solution or melt. Nucleation is the process whereby new crystals are formed. Primary nucleation occurs in crystal-free solution; its exact mechanism is not understood but probably involves the formation of semistructured clusters which rearrange to form crystal nuclei. Ideal primary homogeneous nucleation can be derived thermodynamically by considering the formation of liquid droplets from a vapor phase:

(1)

which indicates that the nucleation rate J is governed by the interfacial tension σ, the supersaturation ratio S = c/c*, and the temperature T, with the constant A, shape factor β, molecular volume Ω and Boltzmann's constant k all being constant for a given system. This equation can, in theory, be applied to the formation of idealized solid particles in a liquid phase. The equation has two practical problems: the interfacial tension is very difficult to measure (it is usually easiest to get it from the nucleation rate) and primary homogeneous nucleation is rare in industrial systems unless solutions and vessels are very clean. In practice, primary heterogeneous nucleation occurs in crystal-free solution, where crystals form on particles in suspension (e.g., dust) or secondary nucleation, where new crystals are formed from existing crystals in solution. As a result, pragmatic nucleation correlations of the form B = knΔcb (primary) or B = kbΔcb (secondary) are often found. Measurement of nucleation rates is difficult, and usable values are rarely found in the literature; nucleation is the most difficult parameter to characterize for most systems.

Crystal growth occurs when solute molecules in solution diffuse to the surface of the crystal, become adsorbed onto the surface and are then incorporated into the crystal lattice. For some systems, incorporation of solute into the crystal is easy and growth is limited by diffusion to the crystal surface through bulk solution or boundary layer. For other systems, surface integration of solute is rate controlling and growth on a flat crystal face is difficult; growth mainly occurs on stepped or kinked edges. For extreme cases, growth is strongly dependent on dislocations in the crystal.

At low supersaturation levels, crystal growth occurs but primary nucleation is not significant; at higher supersaturation levels, primary nucleation rates increase dramatically. This leads to the concept of a metastable zone in which growth dominates, and a labile zone in which primary nucleation dominates. Typical metastable zone widths range between 1-2°C to 30-40°C; inorganic compounds generally have lower widths than organic ones. This is an important concept, and it can be useful to construct such a diagram for a system and then plot the feed, crystallizer and product temperature/composition points.

Crystal growth rates can be measured by laboratory experiments and are also found in the literature, although there is no good summary of available data. Growth correlations are typically found in the form:

Caution should be exercised when using data of this form, as impurities can have order-of-magnitude effects on growth rates.

Crystals can also join together to form agglomerates: this affects a number of bulk crystal properties including shape, purity, strength, size and packing density. Agglomeration is more usually seen in processes producing small (<50 μm) particles.

Impurities can be incorporated into crystals in a number of ways. Surface impurities are left when residual mother liquor on the surface of the crystals evaporates, leaving behind any dissolved impurities. Inclusions of mother liquor may be formed in crystals, especially at high growth rates. Occlusions are voids formed between individual crystals, usually in agglomerates.

In addition to the growth of crystals, there are also processes where small or large fragments can be attritted or broken off crystals, acting as new nuclei for crystal growth. This reduces the size of large crystals, increases the number of smaller ones, and thus contributes to secondary nucleation. At supersaturation levels below the metastable zone limit, secondary nucleation is the dominant mechanism for formation of new crystals. Another factor to consider is exactly what crystal is forming. For many systems — especially organic ones — more than one structural arrangement is possible, leading to the crystallization of different polymorphs under different conditions. Each polymorph will have a different solubility, stability, etc. The formation of an unstable polymorph is usually undesirable. Unfortunately, the stable polymorph at a particular temperature has the lowest solubility and the slowest growth rates. Solvates can exhibit similar behavior, although the growth unit is different in these cases.

Small crystals (<5 μm), usually formed by precipitation, exhibit an additional effect — size-dependent solubility. The highly curved solid-liquid interface has a higher energy associated with it, and the solubility of very small crystals increases. This leads to a ripening (or ageing) process where smaller crystals held in suspension near the solubility concentration tend to dissolve and larger crystals grow.

Crystals are bounded by their slowest-growing faces. Different faces, especially in organic systems, can have different electronic, structural and chemical characteristics. This can lead to impurities becoming adsorbed to different extents on different faces, causing changes in relative growth rate and hence overall crystal shape or habit. Different growth conditions can also lead to this effect. It is sometimes possible to tailor additives to change crystal habit; more commonly, perhaps, impurities cause unwanted changes.

Crystals in Vessels

In solution crystallization, there are a range of crystal sizes present in the vessel. The crystal size distribution can be expressed as number or mass-based, and as a continuous or discrete distribution, usually as the number n of crystals of a particular size L or size range ΔL. From this bulk parameters can be calculated:

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Reference is also commonly made to the moments of distribution:

(6)

Size distributions are usually summarized in terms of their mass-mean size and coefficient of variation CV. For a Gaussian distribution, CV = standard deviation of size/mean size × 100%, and on a cumulative undersized or oversized plot,

An important concept in the analysis of crystallizer behavior is that of population balance. The number of crystals of a particular size or size range is a balance of the formation and removal rate; for a simple system:

(7)

This is most commonly applied to steady-state continuous crystallizers.

For a more complete analysis of population balance and its application to crystallizers, refer to Randolph & Larson (1988) or Nývlt (1992).

Nomenclature

A Constant

B Nucleation rate (kg−1/s)

BLBirth rate of crystals size (m−4/s)

b Supersaturation exponent

c Concentration (kg/kg)

CV Coefficient of variation

DL Death rate of crystals (m−4/s )

E Activation energy (J/mol/K)

fv Volume shape factor

G Growth rate (m/s)

g Supersaturation exponent

J Primary nucleation rate

k Boltzmann's constant (J/K)

kb Secondary nucleation constant

kg Growth rate constant

kn Primary nucleation constant

L Crystal size (m)

M Mass of crystals (kg)

mn nth moment of distribution

MT Slurry density (kg/kg)

Nc Number of crystals

n Number density of crystals (m−4)

Flow rate (m3/s)

R Gas constant (J/mol/K)

S Supersaturation ratio

T Absolute temperature (K)

V Volume of crystallizer (m3)

Ω Molecular volume (m3)

x Mole fraction

β Shape factor

γ Activity coefficient

μ Gibbs free energy (J/mol/K)

μm Mass-mean size (m)

μn Number-mean size (m)

σ Surface tension (J/m2)

ρ Density (kg/m3)

REFERENCES

Mullin, J. W. (1993) Crystallization 3rd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-1129-4.

Myerson, A. S. (Editor) (1992) Handbook of Industrial Crystallization, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-9155-7.

Nývlt, J. (1992) Design of Crystallizers, CRC Press, ISBN 0-8493-5072-7.

Randolph, A. D. and Larson, M. A. (1988) Theory of Particulate Processes, 2nd Edition, Academic Press Inc. ISBN 0-12-579652-8.

Söhnel, O. and Garside, J. (1992) Precipitation: Basic Principles and Industrial Applications, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-1107-3.

SPS Crystallization Manual, Separation Processes Service, Harwell Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon, UK.

References

  1. Mullin, J. W. (1993) Crystallization 3rd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-1129-4.
  2. Myerson, A. S. (Editor) (1992) Handbook of Industrial Crystallization, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-9155-7.
  3. Nývlt, J. (1992) Design of Crystallizers, CRC Press, ISBN 0-8493-5072-7.
  4. Randolph, A. D. and Larson, M. A. (1988) Theory of Particulate Processes, 2nd Edition, Academic Press Inc. ISBN 0-12-579652-8.
  5. Söhnel, O. and Garside, J. (1992) Precipitation: Basic Principles and Industrial Applications, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-1107-3.
  6. SPS Crystallization Manual, Separation Processes Service, Harwell Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon, UK.

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