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SAFETY ASSESSMENT SAFFMAN LENGTH SALINE WATER RECLAMATION SALT SALT DILUTION METHOD FOR FILM FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT SALTATION SALTING OUT SAMPLING SAMPLING METHODS, FOR DROPSIZE MEASUREMENT SAND BLASTING SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORY, SNL Satellite remote sensing SATELLITES SATURATED FLUID PROPERTIES SATURATED SURFACES SATURATED VOLUME SATURATION PRESSURE SATURATION TEMPERATURE SAUTER MEAN DIAMETER SCALE-UP OF PERFORATION PROCESS SCALES OF TURBULENCE SCALING SCATTERING SCATTERING AMPLITUDE SCATTERING EFFICIENCY SCATTERING INDICATRIX SCATTERING OF RADIATION Scattering problem for cylindrical particles SCHEIBEL EQUATION FOR DIFFUSION IN LIQUIDS SCHLIEREN INTERFEROMETRY SCHLIEREN TECHNIQUE SCHMIDT NUMBER SCHMIDT, ERNST (1892-1975) SCHUSTER-HAMAKER MODEL SCHUSTER-SCHWARZCHILD APPROXIMATION, FOR COMBINED RADIATION AND CONDUCTION SCRAPED SURFACE HEAT EXCHANGERS SCREEN SEPARATORS SCREENS SCREW ROTARY COMPRESSOR SCREWS, PLASTICATING SCROLL DISCHARGE CENTRIFUGE SCRUBBERS SEA WATER COMPOSITION SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS SECOND NORMAL STRESS DIFFERENCE COEFFICIENT Secondary Flows Secondary quantity SECONDARY RECOVERY PROCESSES SEDIMENTATION SEDIMENTING CENTRIFUGES SEEPAGE SEGMENTAL BAFFLES SEGREGATION SEIDER-TATE CORRELATION SELECTIVE FROTH FLOTATION SELF ORGANIZATION SELF-SIMILAR HARDENING BEHAVIOR SELF-SIMILARITY SEMI-CONDUCTOR THERMOMETERS SEMI-SLUG FLOWS Semi-transparent media containing bubbles SEMIANNULAR FLOW SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE LASERS SEMICONDUCTORS SEMITRANSPARENT MEDIA SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE SEPARATED FLOW MODELS SEPARATED LIQUID FLOWS SEPARATION OF BOUNDARY LAYERS SEPARATION OF EMULSIONS SEPARATION OF FLUID MIXTURES SEPARATION OF GAS AND SOLIDS SEPARATION OF LIQUIDS SEPARATION OF LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS SEPARATION OF PHASES IN GAS-LIQUID FLOWS SEPARATION PROCESSES SEPARATION, LIQUID/LIQUID SEPARATION, PARTICLES/LIQUID SERIES EXPANSIONS SESSILE DROPS AND BUBBLES SETTLING SLURRIES SEVERE ACCIDENTS, IN NUCLEAR REACTORS, CONTAINMENT OF SHADOWGRAPH TECHNIQUE SHAPE MEMORY SHAPE OF VAPOR FORMATIONS IN EXPLOSIVE BOILING SHAPE SELECTIVE CATALYSIS SHEAR FLOW Shear Layer SHEAR MODULUS Shear Stress SHEAR STRESS MEASUREMENT SHEAR STRESS VELOCITY SHEAR THICKENING SHEAR THICKENING FLUIDS SHEAR THINNING FLUIDS SHEAR VISCOSITY SHEARING INTERFEROGRAM SHEATH CHARACTERISTICS SHEET SPLITTING, IN DROP FORMATION SHELL AND TUBE CONDENSERS SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS SHELL BOILER SHELL PROGRESSIVE MODEL SHELL-SIDE REFRIGERATION CHILLERS SHELLS SHERWOOD NUMBER SHERWOOD, THOMAS KILGORE (1903-1976) SHOCK TUBES SHOCK WAVE PROPAGATION SHOCK WAVES SHOCK WAVES, CONICAL SHORT ROUGHNESS STRIP SHORT TIME LAPSE PHOTOGRAPHY SHORT-TUBE VERTICAL EVAPORATOR SHOT TOWERS SHRINKING CORE MODEL SI UNITS SIDERITES SIEVE, TRAY COLUMN Silica based nanoporous composite materials SILICA GEL SILICON SILICON CARBIDE SILICON SOLAR CELLS SILOS, GRANULAR FLOW FROM SILVER SILVER METHOD SIMILARITY CONDITIONS SIMILARITY, THEORY OF SIMILITUDE Simplest approximations of double spherical harmonics SIMPLEX ATOMIZER SIMPLIFIED BOILING WATER REACTOR, SBWR SIMULATING SUBSURFACE TEMPERATURE SINCLAIR-LA MER AEROSOL GENERATOR Single-phase medium SINGLET STATE SINGLET STATE LIFETIME Singularities SINGULARITIES, HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE IN SINTERING SINUOUS JETS SIPHON CENTRIFUGE SKIMMER PIPE AND KNIFE CENTRIFUGES SKIN EFFECT SKIN FRICTION SLAG FORMATION SLIGHTLY DEFORMED POROUS CIRCULAR CYLINDER SLIGHTLY INCLINED SURFACE-MOUNTED PRISMS Slip ratio SLIT FLOW METERS SLIT FLOWS SLOT-PERFORATED FLAT FINS SLOW MOTION PHOTOGRAPHY Slug flow SLUG FLOW, SOLID SUSPENSIONS SLUG FREQUENCY SLUG LENGTH SLURRIES SMALL ANCLE SCATTERING METHOD, FOR DROPSIZE MEASUREMENT SMELTING SMOKE, AS AN AIR POLLUTANT SMOKES SNELL REFRACTION LAW SNL SOAVE EQUATION SODA ASH SODIUM SODIUM CARBONATE SODIUM CHLORIDE SODIUM COOLED NUCLEAR REACTOR SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOFTENING OF WATER SOFTWARE ENGINEERING SOIL, THERMAL PROPERTIES SOL SOLAR AIR HEATERS SOLAR CELLS SOLAR COOKERS SOLAR DRYING SOLAR ENERGY SOLAR ENERGY THERMAL CONVERSION SOLAR PONDS SOLAR RADIATION SOLAR RADIATION SPECTRUM SOLAR REFRIGERATION SOLAR SELECTIVE SURFACES SOLAR SODIUM EVAPORATOR SOLAR STILLS SOLAR WATER HEATERS SOLENOIDAL FLOW SOLID FUELS SOLID HOLDUP SOLID PROPELLANT SOLID STATE LASERS SOLID-LIQUID-LIQUID FLOWS SOLIDIFICATION SOLIDIFICATION CONSTANT SOLIDOSITY SOLIDS CONCENTRATION SOLIDS IN LIQUIDS, BOILING HEAT TRANSFER SOLIDS SEPARATION SOLIDS, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOLITARY WAVE SOLITON SOLUBILITY SOLUBILITY OF GASES IN LIQUIDS SOLUBILITY OF SOLIDS IN LIQUIDS SOLUTE SOLUTE DIFFUSION SOLUTE FUNCTIONALITY Solution algorithm SOLUTIONS Solutions for one-dimensional problems Solutions for One-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Problems SOLVENT SOLVENT EXTRACTION Some applications: electrical arcs and atmospheric re-entry Some applied problems of combined heat transfer Some methods for detailed numerical simulation of radiative transfer Some validity studies SONIC OSCILLATOR SONIC VELOCITY SONOCAPILLARY EFFECT SOOT SORET AND DUFOUR EFFECTS ON FREE CONVECTION SORET EFFECT SORPTION HEAT PUMPS SOUND ABSORPTION SOUND GENERATION SOUND PROPAGATION SOUR GASES SOUTTER-ION PUMP SPACE HEATING SPACERS SPACERS, EFFECT ON CHF SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES SPARSELY PACKED POROUS MEDIUM Spatial discretization schemes SPATIAL-TEMPORAL CORRELATION SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY SPECIFIC WORK, IN TURBINES SPECKLE METHOD SPECKLE PHOTOGRAPHY SPECTRA, EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL ANALYSIS SPECTRAL DENSITY FUNCTION SPECTRAL EMISSIVITY SPECTRAL EXTINCTION METHOD Spectral radiative properties of diesel fuel droplets Spectral radiative properties of disperse systems: theoretical modeling and experimental characterization Spectral radiative properties of gases and plasma: theoretical models and experimental data Spectral radiative properties of some important materials: experimental data and theoretical models SPECTROFLUORIMETRY Spectroscopic databases SPECTROSCOPY SPECULAR REFLECTION SPEED OF LIGHT SPEED OF SOUND SPENT FUEL SPHERE, DRAG COEFFICIENT FOR SPHERES, CONVECTIVE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER SPHERES, DRAG AND LIFT SPHERES, SOLID, DRAG ON Spherical particles SPHERICITY SPIRAL CLASSIFIER SPIRAL HEAT EXCHANGERS SPIRAL TUBES, USE IN BENSON BOILERS SPIROPYRAN SPLATTERING, EFFECT ON JET IMPINGEMENT SPONTANEOUS CONDENSATION SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS SPRAY COLUMNS SPRAY CONDENSERS SPRAY COOLING SPRAY DRYER SPRAY DRYING SPRAY EQUATION SPRAY EVAPORATORS SPRAY FLOWS SPRAY FORMATION SPRAY NOZZLES SPRAY TOWERS SPRAYERS SPRAYING SPRAYS SPREADING OF LIQUIDS ON LIQUIDS SPUTTERING STABILITY STABILITY CRITERIA STABILITY OF EMULSIONS STABILITY OF FLOATING BODIES STACKS, POLLUTION FROM STAGGERED TUBE BANKS STAGNANT FILM MODEL STAGNATION POINT STAGNATION PRESSURE STAGNATION TEMPERATURE STANDARD CONDITIONS STANTON GAUGE STANTON NUMBER STANTON, SIR THOMAS EDWARD (1865-1931) STARK BROADENING STARK NUMBER STARS, FUSION REACTIONS IN Static Head STATIC INSTABILITIES IN TWO-PHASE SYSTEMS STATIC MIXERS STATIC REGENERATORS STATIONARY PHASE, SP, CHROMATOGRAPHY Statistical band models STATISTICAL MECHANICS STATISTICAL THEORY, OF TURBULENT FLOW STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS STEAM ENGINES STEAM GAS TURBINE UNITS STEAM GENERATORS, NUCLEAR STEAM JET EJECTORS STEAM JET REFRIGERATION STEAM TABLES STEAM TURBINE STEAM-WATER SEPARATION STEEL AND TUBE CONDENSERS STEELS STEFAN'S LAW STEFAN, JOSEF (1835-1893) STEFAN-BOLTZMANN CONSTANT STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW STEFAN-MAXWELL EQUATIONS STEPWISE HEAT RELEASE STEREOSCOPIC IMAGING Stewart number Stewart number STEWARTSON TYPE FLOW STIELTJES' INTEGRAL STIRRED TANK REACTOR STIRRED TANKS STIRRED VESSEL PHASE INVERSION STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS STOCHASTIC PROCESS STOICHIOMETRIC COMBUSTION STOKES EQUATION STOKES FLOW STOKES LENGTH STOKES PARADOX STOKES PROBLEM STOKES SHIFT STOKES STREAM FUNCTION STOKES' LAW FOR SOLID SPHERES AND SPHERICAL BUBBLES STOKES-EINSTEIN EQUATION STOKES-EINSTEIN EQUATION, FOR DIFFERENTIAL COEFFICIENTS IN LIQUIDS STOMATAL CONTROL OF WATER LOSS FROM PLANTS STOPPING DISTANCE STORE'S FORMULA STRAIN STRAIN GAUGES STRAIN RATE STRANGE ATTRACTORS STRATIFICATION, UNSTABLE AND STABLE Stratified Gas-Liquid Flow STRATIFIED WAVY FLOW STRATOSPHERE STREAM ANALYSIS METHOD STREAM AVAILABILITY Stream Function Streamline Streamline Flow STREAMLINED BODIES, FLOW OVER STREAMLINES STREAMLINES, VISUALIZATION STREAMTUBE STRESS Stress in Fluids STRESS IN SOLID MATERIALS STRESS TENSOR STRESS VECTOR STRESS, NORMAL STRESS, SHEAR STRETCHING SHEET STRETCHING SURFACE STRETCHING/STABILIZING EFFLUX FLUID FILMS STROUHAL NUMBER Structure of plasma spectra STRUCTURED SURFACE STUART NUMBER SUBCHANNEL ANALYSIS SUBCHANNEL MIXING SUBCOOLED TWISTED FLOW SUBCOOLING SUBCOOLING EFFECTS ON POOL BOILING SUBLAYER FENCE SUBLIMATION SUBMERGED COMBUSTION SUBMERGED COMBUSTION EVAPORATORS SUBMERGED JETS SUBROUTINES SUBSTITUTE NATURAL GAS (SNG) SUBSURFACE BARRIER SUBUNDAL FLOW SUCTION SUCTION EFFECTS SULFUR SULFUR DIOXIDE SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE SULFUR POLLUTION SULFURIC ACID SUN, HEAT TRANSFER IN SUPER-PHENIX SUPERCAVITATION SUPERCOMPUTING SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS SUPERCONDUCTORS SUPERCRITICAL HEAT TRANSFER SUPERFICIAL VELOCITY SUPERHEATING SUPERSATURATION SUPERSONIC EXTERNAL FLOW SUPERSONIC FLOW SUPERSONIC FLOW, IN NOZZLES SUPERSONIC HETEROGENEOUS FLOW SUPERSONIC JET SUPERUNDAL FLOW SUPPRESSION OF NUCLEATE BOILING SURFACE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES SURFACE ALLOYING OF METALS Surface and interfacial tension SURFACE CONDENSERS SURFACE DIFFUSION SURFACE DIMPLES SURFACE EFFECTS ON BOILING SURFACE EFFICIENCY SURFACE ENERGY SURFACE EXTENSIONS SURFACE FLOW VISUALIZATION SURFACE ROUGHNESS SURFACE TENSION SURFACE TENSION DEVICES SURFACE TREATMENT SURFACE, CIRCULAR SURFACE, PERMEABLE SURFACTANT COLLECTORS SURFACTANTS SURGE TANKS SUSPENSION OF PARTICLES IN LIQUID SUTHERLAND COEFFICIENT SWEATING SWEETENING OF GASES SWIRL BURNERS SWIRL FLOW DEVICES SWIRLING FLOW SWIRLING TAPES, FOR INCREASING BURNOUT FLUX SYMMETRIC TENSOR SYMMETRY ANALYSIS OF SECOND-GRADE FLOW SYNCHROTON RADIATION SYNOPTIC SCALE CIRCULATION, OF 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STEAM GENERATORS, NUCLEAR

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Introduction

The NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) is a relatively recent development, and has been in use for about thirty years. During this time, there were constructed and put in operation 298 Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), 81 of which are in the U.S.; 100 Boiling Water Reactors (BWR), 38 of which are in the U.S.; 19 light-water cooled graphite-moderated reactors (LGR) and 50 pressurized heavy water moderated and cooled reactors (PHWR)—all over 30 MW. In addition, there were expected to be in operation 163 more PWRs, 56 BWRs, 12 LGRs and 18 PHWRs. Here the attention is focused only on the nuclear steam generators of a PWR system, which is shown schematically in Figure 1.

Heat, which is produced in the core inside the pressure vessel, is converted by the primary fluid, which is pumped through the pressure vessel, from the core to the system generator. In the steam generator the primary fluid, water at 150 bar, exchanges heat with the secondary fluid, water at 75 bar, and causes it to boil. The steam, from the steam generator, passes through the turbine, condenser, and is pumped back into the steam generator (SG) as feed water.

There are two types of SG: the U-tube SG and the once through SG, as shown in Figures 2 and 3.

U-Tube Steam Generators

In Figure 2 is depicted a U-tube steam generator, which is installed in a wide variety of commercial NSSS, from the early (1957) 90-MWe Shipping port 4 loops system to new 1300-MWe plants. Two typical systems are characterized in the following:

Rated power, MWe8221,300
Rated heat output, MWth2,4413,819
System pressure, bar153153
Primary coolant flow rate, 104 kg/hr45.367.9
Primary coolant temperature, °C 318,7 332.0
Number of loops34
Number of pumps34
Steam generators  
   Number34
   Shell side design pressure, bar53.477.0
   Steam flow at full load, 106 kg/hr4.87.9
   Steam temperature, °C268.9294.1
   Feedwater temperature, °C225.4239.4
   Number of tubes3,3886,970
   Diameter of tubes, mm22.217.4
   Heat transfer area, m24,784 7,665

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Figure 1. Schematic view of a PWR power plant.

U-tube steam generator.

Figure 2a. U-tube steam generator.

Schematic diagram of a U-tube SG.

Figure 2b. Schematic diagram of a U-tube SG.

Reactor coolant enters the steam generator at the inlet nozzle (on the bottom left-hand side of Figure 2) and enters the tube bundle in the hot leg, completing the U-bend through the cold leg to the primary outlet.

Feedwater enters the side of the shell. It flows down through an annulus just inside the shell (downcomer), where it mixes with water coming from the separator deck. The water enters the heating surface (tube bundle) at the bottom and is increasing in quality as it rises through the steam generator. The steam-water mixture enters the steam water separators—where steam is passed through to the driers and then to the steam nozzle; the water is recirculated, through the downcomer, to the bottom of the heating surface.

The shell, outside of the tubes and the tubesheet form the steam production boundaries. Within the shell, the tube bundle is surrounded by a wrapper (or shroud). The tube material is usually Inconel Alloy 600 (though it would have been better to have thermally treated Inconel 690). Tube support plates, with quatrofoil holes or egg crate supports, hold the tubes in uniform pattern along their length. The U-tube region of the tube is additionally supported by antivibration bars. Vents, drains, instrumentation nozzles, and inspection openings are provided on the shell side of the units.

The UTSGs are characterized by a widening of the shell about 1/3 of the height of the steam generator. This is done in order to increase the area available for the separators at the separator deck.

In the UTSG there is always a water level in the downcomer, in order to balance the pressure losses of steam-water mixture as it flows through the tube bundle. The pressure drop in the tube bundle is due to friction along the tubes, pressure drop at the tube support plates and separators, acceleration of the flow, and hydrostatic head. Quality in the downcomer (e.g. steam bubbles) reduces the density, and thus the available head, substantially. This can be a result of imperfect separation of steam water at the separators and is termed carryunder.

The ratio of flow rate of the steam water mixture which flows through the SG tube bundle, to the flow rate of steam out of the steam nozzle, is called the circulation ratio. It is desirable to maintain a high circulation ratio (may be over 5) to reduce concentration of chemicals, debris, etc., in various places in the SG. Current SGs have frequently circulation ratios of around 3, which is undoubtedly one of the causes of the recently mounting difficulties with these units.

The design of SGs is a complicated procedure, which involves many steps, iterations and interaction with other components of the system.

The NSSS, as part of the power station, is designed to minimize the power cost. This consideration is subject to many constraints — the primary one being safety. Other constraints are imposed by availability of major equipment (e.g., primary coolant pumps), manufacturing capabilities (e.g., can vessel be fabricated), shipping consideration, etc.

Thus, the design of the steam generators is subject to many outside constraints and requirements. For example, the primary fluid condition (i.e., temperatures, allowable pressure drop in the steam generator) is determined mostly by the reactor design and availability of pumps. The performance requirements, i.e., steam pressure, temperature, and flow rates, are determined mostly by the turbine design and are part of the system performance. It follows, therefore, that the tube bundle size (namely the required heat transfer area, as well as allowable pressure drop of the primary fluid) is determined by system considerations.

The preliminary structural design is performed in accordance with ASME's boilers and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. (See Pressure Vessels.) Also, steam generators, as all power plant components, are required to be designed to withstand various accident situations. See, for example, Blowdown. For steam generators, this consists of the following conditions:

  • Small steam line break, loss of feedwater, turbine trip, etc.

  • LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident)

  • MSLB (Main Steam Line Break)

  • SSE (Safe Shutdown Earthquake)

The detailed design includes detailed structural and thermal-hydraulic analyses and studies, and is later used to prove to the customer and regulatory agencies that the steam generator design is in compliance with ASME code, NRC regulations, etc.

Once Through Steam Generators

The OTSG (Figure 3) is typically associated with a NSSS which has the following general characteristics:

Rated power, MWe8601,300
Rated heat output, MWth2,5683,760
System pressure, bar149153
Primary coolant flow rate, 106 kg/hr29.535.6
Primary coolant temperature °C317.8329.7
Number of loops22
Number of pumps44
Number of steam generators71,484.0
Steam flow at full load, 106 kg/hr299308
Steam superheat at full load, °C19.419.4
Feedwater temperature, °C235241
Number of tubes15,53016,000
Diameter of tubes, mm15.915.9
Once through SG.

Figure 3a. Once through SG.

Schematic diagram of a once through SG.

Figure 3b. Schematic diagram of a once through SG.

Reactor coolant water enters the steam generator at the top, flows downward through the tubes and out at the bottom. The high pressure parts of the unit are the hemisphere heads, the tubesheets and the straight tubes between the tubesheets. The tube material is Inconel Alloy 600. Tube support plates, with trefoil holes, hold the tubes in a uniform pattern along their length. The unit is supported by a skirt attached to the bottom tubesheet.

Figure 3b indicates the flow paths on the steam side of the unit. Feedwater enters the side of the shell. It flows down through an annulus just inside the shell where it is brought to saturation temperature by mixing it with steam. The saturated water enters the heating surface at the bottom and is converted to steam and superheated in a single pass upward through the generator.

The shell, outside of the tubes, and the tubesheets form the boundaries of the steam producing section of the vessel. Within the shell, the tube bundle is surrounded by a shroud, which is in two sections, with the upper section the larger of the two in diameter. The upper part of the annulus between the shell and the baffle is the superheater outlet, while the lower part is the feedwater inlet heating zone. Vents, drains, instrumentation nozzles and inspection openings are provided on the shell side of the units.

Superheated steam is produced at a constant pressure over the power range. At full power, the steam temperature of 300°C provides about 19°C of superheat. As load is reduced, steam temperature approaches the reactor outlet temperature, thus increasing the superheat slightly. Below 15% load, steam temperature decreases to saturation.

Recent Problems with SGs

The NSSS provided in the past service which was mostly safe and trouble free. In the last 20 years, however, there is an increasing number of PWR nuclear steam generators which develop technical problems, such as denting, intergranular attack (IGA), vibration of tubes which cause wear and fatigue, wastage of tubes, pitting, erosion-corrosion, water hammer, etc. Any of these can lead to a breach of the integrity of the tubes and to leakage of primary (contaminated) coolant into the secondary fluid. Since the secondary fluid is leaving the containment vessel to the turbines, it must not be radioactive, and must not be contaminated by primary fluid. Therefore, when leaking tubes are detected, the plant must be shut down for repairs, and replacement of SGs, at great costs and loss of revenue.

REFERENCES

Cumo, M. and Naviglio, A. (1991) Thermal Hydraulic Design of Components for Steam Generators, CRC Press.

Green, S. J. and Hetsroni, G. (1995) PWR Steam Generators, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 21 (Annual Review). DOI: 10.1016/0301-9322(95)00016-Q

Hetsroni, G. (1982) Handbook of Multiphase Systems, Hemisphere-McGraw-Hill.

Steam Generation Reference Book, EPRI, 1985.

Singhal, A. K. and Srikkantiah, G. (1991) A Review of Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Methodology for PWR SG and ATHOS 3 code Application, Progress in Nuclear Energy, 25, 7-70. DOI: 10.1016/0149-1970(91)90041-M

Ulbrich, R. and Mewes, D. (1994) Experimental Studies of Vertical Two-Phase Flow Across Tube Bundle, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 20, 249-272.

References

  1. Cumo, M. and Naviglio, A. (1991) Thermal Hydraulic Design of Components for Steam Generators, CRC Press.
  2. Green, S. J. and Hetsroni, G. (1995) PWR Steam Generators, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 21 (Annual Review). DOI: 10.1016/0301-9322(95)00016-Q
  3. Hetsroni, G. (1982) Handbook of Multiphase Systems, Hemisphere-McGraw-Hill. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112083230881
  4. Steam Generation Reference Book, EPRI, 1985.
  5. Singhal, A. K. and Srikkantiah, G. (1991) A Review of Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Methodology for PWR SG and ATHOS 3 code Application, Progress in Nuclear Energy, 25, 7-70. DOI: 10.1016/0149-1970(91)90041-M
  6. Ulbrich, R. and Mewes, D. (1994) Experimental Studies of Vertical Two-Phase Flow Across Tube Bundle, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 20, 249-272.

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