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Approximation Error RACKETT EQUATION RADAR RADIAL COMPRESSOR RADIAL ENERGY FLOWS RADIAL FANS RADIAL GAP SIZE RADIATION RADIATION ABSORPTION METHOD RADIATION BETWEEN PARALLEL PLATES RADIATION DIFFUSION APPROXIMATION, FOR COMBINED RADIATION AND CONDUCTION RADIATION DOSIMETRY RADIATION DRYING Radiation from semi-transparent oxide particles in thermal spraying Radiation heat transfer in a supersonic nozzle of a solid-propellant rocket engine Radiation heat transfer in solid-propellant rocket engines RADIATION IN ENCLOSURES Radiation in nanomanufacturing Radiation in production of carbon fibers Radiation of an isothermal plane-parallel layer Radiation of isothermal volumes of scattering medium: An error of the diffusion model Radiation of nonisothermal layer of scattering medium RADIATION SHIELDS RADIATION TO FURNACE TUBES Radiation transfer between the surfaces through a non-participating medium Radiation transfer in emitting, absorbing and scattering media Radiation transfer in combustion chambers Radiation transfer problems in nature and engineering Radiation transfer theory and the computational methods Radiation-turbulence interaction Radiative boundary layer Radiative cooling and solidification of core melt droplets Radiative cooling of particle flow in vacuum RADIATIVE DIFFUSION Radiative effects in semi-transparent liquid containing gas bubbles Radiative equilibrium in plane-parallel layer RADIATIVE EXCHANGE Radiative exchange between an isothermal gas and surrounding walls RADIATIVE HEAT FLUX Radiative heat transfer Radiative heat transfer in moving media RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER, IN POROUS MEDIA Radiative properties of gas bubbles in semi-transparent medium Radiative properties of metal particles in infrared and microwave spectral ranges Radiative properties of micro- and nanostructures Radiative properties of particles and fibers (theoretical analysis) Radiative properties of polydisperse systems of independent particles Radiative properties of semi-transparent fibers at arbitrary illumination Radiative properties of semi-transparent particles Radiative properties of single particles and fibers: the hypothesis of independent scattering and the Mie theory Radiative properties of soot particles Radiative properties of water droplets in near infrared RADIATIVE SPECTRAL INTENSITY Radiative transfer equation Radiative transfer equation: a general formulation Radiative transfer for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems Radiative transfer in combustion phenomena affected by radiation Radiative transfer in combustion systems Radiative Transfer in Coupled Atmosphere and Ocean Systems: Impact of Surface Roughness on Remotely Sensed Radiances Radiative transfer in coupled atmosphere and ocean systems: the adding and doubling method Radiative Transfer in Coupled Atmosphere and Ocean Systems: the Discrete Ordinate Method RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN COUPLED ATMOSPHERE AND OCEAN SYSTEMS: THE SUCCESSIVE ORDER OF SCATTERING METHOD Radiative transfer in glass production Radiative transfer in laminar flames Radiative transfer in laser processing Radiative transfer in medical laser treatment RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN MULTIDIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS: A COMBINED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL Radiative transfer in space applications Radiative transfer in the atmosphere Radiative transfer in turbulent flames Radiative transfer in two-phase combustion Radiative-conductive heat transfer in dispersed materials Radiative-conductive heat transfer in foam insulations RADIO FREQUENCY HEATING RADIO FREQUENCY, RF, DRYING RADIO WAVES RADIOACTIVE DECAY RADIUM RADIUS, HYDRAULIC RADON RAE RAFFINATE PHASE RAINBOW VOLUMIC VELOCIMETRY RAINFALL RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY RAMJET ENGINES RANDOM PROCESSES RANKINE CYCLE RANKINE DEGREE RANKINE VORTEX RANKINE, WJM RAOULT'S AND DALTON'S LAW RAOULT'S LAW RAREFACTION RAREFACTION WAVE RAREFIED GAS DYNAMICS RATE-CONTROLLED CONSTRAINED EQUILIBRIUM Ray effects and false scattering Ray optics and wave effects in radiation propagation Rayleigh equation, for bubble growth Rayleigh equation, for droplet formation Rayleigh formula Rayleigh law of scattering Rayleigh number Rayleigh scattering Rayleigh, Lord (1842-1919) Rayleigh-Gans scattering Rayleigh-Taylor instability REACTING GAS FLOW REACTION TURBINES REACTIVE CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT REACTOR PHYSICS Real gaseous spectra REATTACHMENT REATTACHMENT, OF BOUNDARY LAYER Reaumur Degree REBOILERS RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR RECIRCULATION RECIRCULATION BOILERS RECONSTRUCTED WAVEFRONTS RECOVERY COEFFICIENT RECOVERY TEMPERATURE RECTANGULAR CHANNEL RECTANGULAR CYLINDERS RECTANGULAR DUCTS RECTANGULAR STENOTIC MODELS RECUPERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGERS REDLICH-KWONG EQUATION REDOX REACTIONS REDUCED GRAVITY CONDITIONS REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTER, RISC REDUCED PROPERTIES REFINING REFLECTANCE REFLECTION COEFFICIENT (REFLECTANCE) REFLECTION COEFFICIENTS FOR EARTH'S SURFACE REFLECTIVITY REFLOOD REFLUX CONDENSATION REFLUX CONDENSER REFLUX RATIOS REFORMING REFRACTION REFRACTIVE INDEX REFRACTIVE INDICES FOR GASES AND LIQUIDS REFRACTORY MATERIALS, FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES REFRIGERANTS REFRIGERATION REGENERATIVE BURNER REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINE REGENERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGERS REGULAR REGIME OF DRYING REHEATING REICHARDT'S FORMULA, FOR VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION IN TUBES REIMANN'S INTEGRAL REINER-RIVLIN FLUID RELATIVE HUMIDITY RELATIVE MOLAR MASS RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIVE POWER DEMAND, RPD RELATIVE ROUGHNESS RELAXATION TIME RENEWABLE ENERGY RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES RESIDUAL ENTHALPY RESIDUAL GIBBS ENERGY RESINS RESISTANCE HEATING RESISTANCE THERMOMETERS RESISTANCE THERMOMETRY RESISTANCE, ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY, ELECTRICAL RESONANCE FLUORESCENCE RETENTATE RETENTION INDEX RETROGRADE CONDENSATION RETURN TO NUCLEATE BOILING REVERSE OSMOSIS REVERSED HEAT ENGINE CYCLES REVERSIBILITY PRINCIPLE REVERSIBLE PROCESSES REWETTING REWETTING OF HOT SURFACES REYNOLDS ANALOGY Reynolds Number REYNOLDS NUMBER, CRITICAL, IN TUBES REYNOLDS STRESS REYNOLDS STRESS TRANSPORT MODELS REYNOLDS' AVERAGING REYNOLDS' EQUATIONS REYNOLDS, OSBORNE (1842-1912) RHEOLOGY RHEOMETERS RHEOPEPTIC FLUIDS RHODAMINE RICCATTY-BESSEL FUNCTIONS RICHARDSON NUMBER RIDEAL-ELEY MODEL, FOR HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS RIEDEL-PLANK-MILLER EQUATION RIEMAN WAVES RIGHT-ANGLE TRIANGULAR ENCLOSURE RIGID-WALLED CHANNEL RISC. REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTER RISK ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES RISK ASSESSMENT ROASTING ROCKET PROPELLANTS ROCKETS ROD BAFFLES ROD BUNDLE TESTS ROD BUNDLES, FLOW IN ROD BUNDLES, HEAT TRANSFER IN ROD BUNDLES, PARALLEL FLOW IN ROD CLIMBING ROD-STABILIZED LAMINAR PREMIXED FLAME RODRIGUES FORMULA ROHRSCHNEIDER CONSTANT ROLL MOMENT ROLL WAVES ROOTS TYPE COMPRESSOR ROSIN-RAMMLER ROSIN-RAMMLER SIZE DISTRIBUTION ROSSBY NUMBER ROSSELAND COEFFICIENT ROTAMETERS ROTARY ATOMIZERS ROTARY DRYERS ROTARY KILNS ROTARY REGENERATORS ROTATED TUBE BANKS ROTATING CHANNEL WITH RIBS ROTATING CYLINDERS, CRITICAL SPEED ROTATING CYLINDERS, FLOW BETWEEN ROTATING CYLINDERS, FLOW OVER ROTATING DISC CONTACTOR ROTATING DISC SYSTEMS, APPLICATIONS ROTATING DISC SYSTEMS, BASIC PHENOMENA ROTATING DUCT SYSTEMS, ORTHOGONAL, HEAT TRANSFER IN ROTATING DUCT SYSTEMS, PARALLEL, HEAT TRANSFER IN ROTATING FLOW IN A POROUS LAYER ROTATING FLOW PASSAGE ROTATING PIPE FLOW ROTATING SURFACES ROTATIONAL DISCONTINUITIES Rotational Rayleigh number ROTATIONAL REYNOLDS NUMBERS ROUGH CHANNELS, FRICTION FACTOR IN ROUGH SURFACE FRICTION FACTORS ROUGH SURFACES ROUGH TUBES ROUGH TUBES, FLOW IN ROUGH TUBES, HEAT TRANSFER IN ROUGHNESS FACTORS ROYAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING, RAE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY ROYAL SOCIETY, RS RS RSC RUBBER RUMFORD, COUNT, BENJAMIN THOMPSON RUSHTON TURBINE
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REBOILERS

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Reboilers are used to generate a flux of vapor to feed to a distillation tower; the vapor rises up the tower contacting a downwards-flowing liquid stream. A whole variety of forms of reboiler have been used in practice, some of which are described briefly below. General reviews of the forms and design of reboilers are given by McKee (1970), by Ploughman (1983) and by Whalley and Hewitt (1983).

Internal Reboilers

The simplest approach is to mount the reboiler in the distillation tower itself as is illustrated in Figure 1. Here, boiling takes place in the pool of liquid at the bottom of the tower, the heating fluid being inside the bundle of tubes as shown. The major problem with internal reboilers is the limitation imposed by the size of the distillation column. This limits the size of the reboiler. Another problem sometimes encountered is that of mounting the bundle satisfactorily into the column. The problem of size restriction can be overcome if compact heat exchangers are used. Thus, Plate-Fin Exchangers are used commonly as internal reboilers in the distillation towers of air separation plant. Another form of compact heat exchanger which has been used for this type of duty is the printed circuit heat exchanger which has an even higher heat transfer surface area per unit volume.

Kettle Reboilers

The layout of the kettle reboiler is illustrated schematically in Figure 2. Liquid flows from the column into a shell in which there is a horizontal tube bundle, boiling taking place from the outside this bundle. The vapor passes back to the column as shown. Kettle reboilers are widely used in the petroleum and chemical industries; their main problems are that of ensuring proper disentrainment of liquid from the outgoing vapor and the problem of the collection of scale and other solid materials in the tube bundle region over long periods of operation.

Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler

This type is illustrated in Figure 3. The liquid passes from the bottom of the tower into the reboiler, with the evaporation taking place inside the tubes. The two-phase mixture is discharged back into the tower, where the liquid settles back to the liquid pool and the vapor passes up the tower as shown. The heating fluid (typically condensing steam) is on the outside of the tubes. The vertical thermosyphon reboiler is less susceptible to fouling problems and in general has higher heat transfer coefficients than does the kettle reboiler. However, additional height is required in order to mount the reboiler.

Internal reboiler.

Figure 1. Internal reboiler.

Horizontal Thermosyphone Reboiler

Here, the liquid from the column passes in cross flow over a tube bundle and the liquid-vapor mixture is returned to the column as shown (see Figure 4). The heating fluid is inside the tubes. This design has the advantage of preserving the natural circulation concept while allowing a lower headroom than the vertical thermosyphon type.

However, there are more uncertainties about fouling and about the prediction of the crossflow heat transfer rates.

Kettle reboiler

Figure 2. Kettle reboiler

Vertical thermosyphon reboiler.

Figure 3. Vertical thermosyphon reboiler.

Horizontal thermosyphon reboiler.

Figure 4. Horizontal thermosyphon reboiler.

REFERENCES

McKee, H. R. (1970) Thermosyphon reboilers: a review, Ind. Eng. Chem., 62–12, 76.

Palen, J. W. (1983) Shell-and-tube reboilers, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook. Section 3.6. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York.

Whalley, P. P. and Hewitt, G. F. (1983) Reboilers, Multiphase Science and Technology, Vol. 2, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York.

References

  1. McKee, H. R. (1970) Thermosyphon reboilers: a review, Ind. Eng. Chem., 62–12, 76.
  2. Palen, J. W. (1983) Shell-and-tube reboilers, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook. Section 3.6. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York.
  3. Whalley, P. P. and Hewitt, G. F. (1983) Reboilers, Multiphase Science and Technology, Vol. 2, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York.

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